The New List of Human Interleukins 1-36: Target Receptor, Target Cells and Function

Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells.Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice

The New List of 36 Human Interleukins
Name
Source
Target receptors[
Target cells
Function
IL-1
macrophages, B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells
CD121a/IL1R1, CD121b/IL1R2
T helper cells
co-stimulation
B cells
maturation & proliferation
NK cells
activation
macrophages, endothelium, other
inflammation,small amounts induce acute phase reaction, large amounts induce fever
IL-2
Th1-cells
CD25/IL2RA, CD122/IL2RB, CD132/IL2RG
activated T cells and B cells, NK cells, macrophages, oligodendrocytes
stimulates growth and differentiation of T cell response. Can be used in immunotherapy to treat cancer or suppressed for transplant patients. Has also been used in clinical trials (ESPIRIT. Stalwart) to raise CD4 counts in HIV positive patients.
IL-3
activated T helper cells, mast cells, NK cells, endothelium, eosinophils
CD123/IL3RA, CD131/IL3RB
hematopoietic stem cells
differentiation and proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells [41] to e.g. erythrocytes, granulocytes
mast cells
growth and histamine release
IL-4
Th2 cells, just activated naive CD4+ cell, memory CD4+ cells, mast cells, macrophages
CD124/IL4R, CD132/IL2RG
activated B cells
proliferation and differentiation, IgG1 and IgE synthesis. Important role in allergic response (IgE)
T cells
proliferation
endothelium
increase expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) promoting adhesion of lymphocytes.
IL-5
Th2 cells, mast cells, eosinophils
CD125/IL5RA, CD131/IL3RB
eosinophils
production
B cells
differentiation, IgA production
IL-6
macrophages, Th2 cells, B cells, astrocytes, endothelium
CD126/IL6RA, CD130/IR6RB
activated B cells
differentiation into plasma cells
plasma cells
antibody secretion
hematopoietic stem cells
differentiation
T cells, others
induces acute phase reaction, hematopoiesis, differentiation, inflammation
IL-7
Bone marrow stromal cells and thymus stromal cells
CD127/IL7RA, CD132/IL2RG
pre/pro-B cell, pre/pro-T cell, NK cells
differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid progenitor cells, involved in B, T, and NK cell survival, development, and homeostasis, ↑proinflammatory cytokines
IL-8 or CXCL8
macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells
CXCR1/IL8RA, CXCR2/IL8RB/CD128
neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes
Neutrophil chemotaxis
IL-9
Th2 cells, specifically by CD4+ helper cells
CD129/IL9R
T cells, B cells
Potentiates IgM, IgG, IgE, stimulates mast cells
IL-10
monocytes, Th2 cells, CD8+ T cells, mast cells, macrophages, B cell subset
CD210/IL10RA, CDW210B/IL10RB
macrophages
cytokine production
B cells
activation
mast cells
Th1 cells
inhibits Th1 cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-β, IL-2)
Th2 cells
Stimulation
IL-11
bone marrow stroma
IL11RA
bone marrow stroma
acute phase protein production, osteoclast formation
IL-12
dendritic cells, B cells, T cells, macrophages
CD212/IL12RB1, IR12RB2
activated  T cells,
differentiation into Cytotoxic T cells with IL-2,[41] ↑ IFN-γ, TNF-α, ↓ IL-10
NK cells
↑ IFN-γ, TNF-α
IL-13
activated Th2 cells, mast cells, NK cells
IL13R
TH2-cells, B cells, macrophages
Stimulates growth and differentiation of B cells (IgE), inhibits TH1-cells and the production of macrophage inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6), ↓ IL-8, IL-10, IL-12
IL-14
T cells and certain malignant B cells
activated B cells
controls the growth and proliferation of B cells, inhibits Ig secretion
IL-15
mononuclear phagocytes (and some other cells), especially macrophages following infection by virus(es)
IL15RA
T cells, activated B cells
Induces production of Natural killer cells
IL-16
lymphocytes, epithelial cells, eosinophils, CD8+ T cells
CD4
CD4+ T cells (Th-cells)
CD4+ chemoattractant
IL-17
T helper 17 cells (Th17)
CDw217/IL17RA, IL17RB
epithelium, endothelium, other
osteoclastogenesis, angiogenesis, ↑ inflammatory cytokines
IL-18
macrophages m,v,v,lkj,vn,
CDw218a/IL18R1
Th1 cells, NK cells
Induces production of IFNγ, ↑ NK cell activity
IL-19
IL20R
IL-20
Activated keratinocytes and monocytes
IL20R
regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes
IL-21
activated T helper cells, NKT cells
IL21R
All lymphocytes, dendritic cells
costimulates activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells, augment NK cytotoxicity, augments CD40-driven B cell proliferation, differentiation and isotype switching, promotes differentiation of Th17 cells
IL-22
T helper 17 cells (Th17)
IL22R
Production of defensins from epithelial cells.[31] Activates STAT1 and STAT3 and increases production of acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin in hepatoma cell lines
IL-23
macrophages, dendritic cells
IL23R
Maintenance of IL-17 producing cells,[31] increases angiogenesis but reduces CD8 T-cell infiltration
IL-24
melanocytes, keratinocytes, monocytes, T cells
IL20R
Plays important roles in tumor suppression, wound healing and psoriasis by influencing cell survival, inflammatory cytokine expression.
IL-25
T Cells, mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells
LY6E
Induces the production IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, which stimulate eosinophil expansion
IL-26
T cells, monocytes
IL20R1
Enhances secretion of IL-10 and IL-8 and cell surface expression of CD54 on epithelial cells
IL-27
macrophages, dendritic cells
IL27RA
Regulates the activity of B lymphocyte and T lymphocytes
IL-28
IL28R
Plays a role in immune defense against viruses
IL-29
Plays a role in host defenses against microbes
IL-30
Forms one chain of IL-27
IL-31
Th2 cells
IL31RA
May play a role in inflammation of the skin
IL-32
Induces monocytes and macrophages to secrete TNF-α, IL-8 and CXCL2
IL-33
Induces helper T cells to produce type 2 cytokine
IL-35
regulatory T cells
Suppression of T helper cell activation
IL-36
Regulates DC and T cell responses

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